risk

Structural Violence and Structural Vulnerability Within the Risk Environment: Theoretical and Methodological Perspectives for a Social Epidemiology of HIV Risk Among Injection Drug Users and Sex Workers

An article in Rethinking Social Epidemiology
2012, Part 3, 205-230.

The transmission of HIV is shaped by individual-environment inter­actions. Social epidemiologic approaches thus seek to capture the dynamic and reciprocal relationships of individual-environment interactions in the production and reduction of risk.

Transactional Sex as a Response to Risk in Western Kenya

Though formal and informal sex work has long been identified as crucial for the spread of HIV/AIDS, the nature of the sex-for-money market remains poorly understood. Using a unique panel dataset constructed from 192 self-reported diaries, we find that women who engage in transactional sex substantially increase their supply of risky, better compensated sex to cope with unexpected health shocks, particularly the illness of another household member.

RIGHTS-BURMA: For Sex Workers, A Life of Risks

A news story by Mon Mon Myat on the australia.to website which explores the situation of older sex workers in Burma.

Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS

An article by Mayhew S, Collumbien M, Qureshi A, Platt L, Rafiq N, Faisel A, Lalji N and Hawkes S in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 ii31-ii36.

Objectives: To investigate the nature and extent of human rights abuses against three vulnerable groups (injecting drug users (IDUs) and male and female sex workers), to understand the social and sexual linkages between them and to examine how protecting their rights could enhance the impact of HIV prevention policies.

HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men, transgenders and women selling sex in two cities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional prevalence survey

An article by Hawkes S, Collumbien M, Platt L, Lalji N, Rizvi N, Andreasen a, Chow J, Muzaffar R, ur-Rehman H, Siddiqui N, Hasan S and Bokhari A in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 ii8-ii16.

Objectives: The extent and possibilities of spread of the HIV epidemic are not fully understood in Pakistan. A survey was conducted among men, women and transgender populations selling sex in Rawalpindi (Punjab) and Abbottabad (North West Frontier Province) in order to inform evidence-based programme planning.

Avahan: Community Mobilisation in Avahan

A presentation by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation at the Mexico IAS Conference – NACO Satellite Session August 3, 2008. It provides a thorough account of how the Foundation’s HIV prevention project in India, Avahan, mobilises communities to deliver HIV prevention and care services to female sex workers and ‘MSM’ and transgender sex workers. This community mobilization has involved addressing a range of challenges so there is much to learn from the AVAHAN initiative see their website.

Sex Workers

A chapter by Ramjee G in Abdool Karim S. S. 'HIV/AIDS in South Africa', Cambridge University Press. The author provides an overview of the dynamics of sex work and HIV in Africa arguing that heightened risk is not only due to high risk sexual behaviour but also to social conditions, limited knowledge of HIV and high prevalence of STIs. The success of interventions targeted at sex workers and their clients depends on understanding the social context.

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