Pakistan

The descriptive epidemiology of male sex workers in Pakistan: a biological and behavioural examination

In this study in Pakistan 3350 male and transgender sex workers were surveyed, of which 2694 were included in the study. The average age of respondents was 24.1 years (SD 6.3), and the average duration of sex work was 7.5 years (SD 5.9). Respondents averaged 30.9 (SD 2.7) paid receptive anal sex acts in the month prior to their interview, while 21.5% reported using a condom during their last occurrence of paid anal sex. Of those surveyed, HIV prevalence was 5.4 per 1000; notably, no HIV-positive respondents reported any injection drug use.

Condom use during commercial sex among clients of Hijra sex workers in Karachi, Pakistan

Article in BMJ Open 2011;1, that describes the prevalence and predictors of condom use and sexual risk in the male clients of transgender (Hijra) sex workers in Karachi, Pakistan. 

Design Cross-sectional study.

Setting Karachi, Pakistan.

HIV and Sex Work in Pakistan

This UNAIDS factsheet explains more about the epidemic in Pakistan.

HIV in Pakistan: Preventing a future epidemic in most-at-risk groups

A research brief from the Programme for Research and Capacity Building in Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV in Developing Countries. This brief accompanies a special issue of Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Their research found:

Confronting the HIV challenge in Pakistan: Urgent need for health services in most-at-risk communities

A policy brief from the Programme for Research and Capacity Building in Sexual and Reproductive Health and HIV in Developing Countries.

This brief accompanies a special issue of Sexually Transmitted Infections and argues that a more cohesive approach to national STI control is needed in Pakistan through the following interventions:

Protecting the unprotected: mixed-method research on drug use, sex work and rights in Pakistan's fight against HIV/AIDS

An article by Mayhew S, Collumbien M, Qureshi A, Platt L, Rafiq N, Faisel A, Lalji N and Hawkes S in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 ii31-ii36.

Objectives: To investigate the nature and extent of human rights abuses against three vulnerable groups (injecting drug users (IDUs) and male and female sex workers), to understand the social and sexual linkages between them and to examine how protecting their rights could enhance the impact of HIV prevention policies.

HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men, transgenders and women selling sex in two cities in Pakistan: a cross-sectional prevalence survey

An article by Hawkes S, Collumbien M, Platt L, Lalji N, Rizvi N, Andreasen a, Chow J, Muzaffar R, ur-Rehman H, Siddiqui N, Hasan S and Bokhari A in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 ii8-ii16.

Objectives: The extent and possibilities of spread of the HIV epidemic are not fully understood in Pakistan. A survey was conducted among men, women and transgender populations selling sex in Rawalpindi (Punjab) and Abbottabad (North West Frontier Province) in order to inform evidence-based programme planning.

Understanding the context of male and transgender sex work using peer ethnography

An article by Collumbien M, Qureshi AA, Mayhew SH, Rizvi1 N, Rabbani A, Rolfe B, Verma RK, Rehman H, Naveed-i-Rahat in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85:ii3-ii7.

Objectives: To distinguish between three distinct groups of male and transgender sex workers in Pakistan and to demonstrate how members of these stigmatised groups need to be engaged in the research process to go beyond stated norms of behaviour.

STIs and HIV in Pakistan: from analysis to action

An article by Zaheer HA, Hawkes S, Buse K and O’Dwyer M in Sexually Transmitted Infections 2009;85 ii1-ii2.

A group of researchers and practitioners sought to understand the drivers of sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including HIV, in Pakistan. The results of the research suggest three central messages:

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