male sex workers

The descriptive epidemiology of male sex workers in Pakistan: a biological and behavioural examination

In this study in Pakistan 3350 male and transgender sex workers were surveyed, of which 2694 were included in the study. The average age of respondents was 24.1 years (SD 6.3), and the average duration of sex work was 7.5 years (SD 5.9). Respondents averaged 30.9 (SD 2.7) paid receptive anal sex acts in the month prior to their interview, while 21.5% reported using a condom during their last occurrence of paid anal sex. Of those surveyed, HIV prevalence was 5.4 per 1000; notably, no HIV-positive respondents reported any injection drug use.

Social Network and Other Correlates of HIV Testing: Findings from Male Sex Workers and Other MSM in Shanghai, China

An article in AIDS and Behaviour.

Although the Chinese government provides free-of-charge voluntary HIV counseling and testing, HIV testing rates among men who have sex with men (MSM) are reported to be extremely low. This study examines the association of structural and psychosocial factors and social network characteristics with HIV testing behaviorsamong “money boys” and general MSM in Shanghai.

TurboConsumers™ in paradise: Tourism, civil rights, and Brazil's gay sex industry

Article in American Ethnologist, Volume 38, Issue 4, pages 666–682, November 2011.

Psychosocial pathways to inconsistent condom use among male sex workers: personality, drug misuse and criminality

This research compared street male sex workers in Santo André, Brazil, that reported consistent condom use with those that revealed inconsistent condom use with their clients, concerning personality aspects, impulsiveness, alcohol and drug consumption, depressive symptoms, sociodemographic data and criminal involvement.


Article in Sexual Health 8(3) 390-398.

Use of AUDIT, and measures of drinking frequency and patterns to detect associations between alcohol and sexual behaviour in male sex workers in Kenya

Previous research has linked alcohol use with an increased number of sexual partners, inconsistent condom use and a raised incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs).

A Psychosocial Study of Male-to-Female Transgendered and Male Hustler Sex Workers in São Paulo, Brazil

This study examined sociodemographic variables, personality characteristics, and alcohol and drug misuse among male sex workers in the city of Santo André, São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 45 male-to-female transgender sex workers and 41 male hustlers were evaluated in face-to-face interviews at their place of work from 2008 to 2010. A “snowball” sampling procedure was used to access this hard-to-reach population.

Money Boys

An exploratory survey of money boys and HIV transmission risk in Jilin Province, China.

AIDS Research and Therapy 2010, 7:17 doi:10.1186/1742-6405-7-17

Political feasibility of scaling-up five evidence-informed HIV interventions in Pakistan: a policy analysis

An article by Buse K, Lalji N, Mayhew SH, Imran M and Hawkes SJ in Sex Transm Infect 2009;85 ii37-ii42.

Background: Drawing on policy theories, an assessment was made of the perceived political feasibility of scaling-up five evidence-based interventions to curb Pakistan’s HIV epidemic: needle and syringe exchange programmes; targeted behaviour change communication; sexual health care for male and transgender sex workers; sexual and reproductive health care for female sex workers; and promoting and protecting the rights of those at greatest risk.

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