Comparing risk factors of HIV among hijra sex workers in Larkana and other
In 2005, Pakistan was first labeled as a country with concentrated epidemic of HIV. This was revealed through second generation surveillance conducted by HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project. While injection drug users were driving the epidemic, subsequent surveys showed that hijra sex workers were emerging as the second most vulnerable group with an average national prevalence of 6.4 %. An exceptionally high prevalence (27.6 %) was found in Larkana, whic is a small town on the right bank of river Indus near the ruins of Mohenjo-Daro in the province of Sindh. This paper presents the risk factors associated with high prevalence of HIV among HSWs in Larkana as compared to other cities of the country....had quite inadequate knowledge regarding modes of prevention of HIV as in response to the question regarding knowledge of prevention of HIV majority of HSWs in Larkana replied “no” when asked if prevention is possible by refraining from sex HSWs in Larkana did not know where people could go, if they want to get an HIV/AIDS test. It actually indicates lack of access and social barriers to seek help if needed. This is discovered in other global surveys as well that sex workers have inadequate access to HIV prevention services, and even more limited access for appropriate treatment, care and support . The epidemiological data on HIV infection rates among sex workers and their clients reflects the failure to adequately respond to their human rights and public health needs. It may also be due to stigma of or being identified as a person at high risk for HIV. While the global response to the pandemic has progressed over the decades both in scale and in efforts to reach diverse and vulnerable groups, stigma and discrimination still follow affected individuals in many settings.
Even though HSWs in Larkana knew that HIV can spread through blood transfusion but many of them also thought that HIV can also spread through kissing and hugging. They also
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