Preventing HIV in sex work in Sex Work Settings in Sub Saharan Africa

Sex work is an important feature of the transmission dynamics of HIV within early, advanced and regressing epidemics in sub-Saharan Africa.

HIV prevalence among sex workers and their clients is commonly 20 fold higher than the general population.

Together, these factors may contribute to a differential in HIV transmission potential of more than 1000 times compared with lower-risk populations. Yet, in much of Africa, there is little evidence that transmission of HIV and other STIs in sex work settings has been controlled.

Bacterial vaginosis, HIV serostatus and T cell subset distribution in a cohort of East African commercial sex workers: retrospective analysis

Few data exist on oral human papillomavirus (HPV) prevalence in female sex workers (FSWs). Information regarding oral sex practices of 185 Peruvian FSWs, 18–26 years of age, was obtained via survey and compared with HPV testing results of oral rinse samples. Oral HPV prevalence was 14/185 (7.6%); four (28.9%) HPV genotypes were carcinogenic. One hundred and eighty-two participants reported having had oral sex; 95% reported condom use during oral sex with clients and 9.5% with partners.

Occupational stigma as a primary barrier to health care for street-based sex workers in Canada


 Individuals working in the sex industry continue to experience many negative health outcomes. As such, disentangling the factors shaping poor health access remains a critical public health priority. Within a quasi-criminalised prostitution environment, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of occupational stigma associated with sex work and its relationship to barriers to accessing health services.

Sexual minorities: Identity number makes them unique target

There is very little information about the role of Identity Documents in how sex workers access health services and the protection of their human rights. This article from India addresses this important issue.

HIV Prevalence and Risk Behaviors Among Male Clients of Female Sex Workers in Yunnan, China

Yunnan Province is one of the epicenters of the HIV
epidemic in China.8 HIV in Yunnan has primarily spread through injection drug use which is prevalent in the region due to its proximity to Southeast Asia’s Golden Triangle region of high opium production.9,10 Economic development has also led to a flourishing commercial sex industry. A number of studies have been conducted among female sex workers   in China, but little is known about their male clients due to the difficulty of identifying and recruiting them into studies.

HIV and STIs in Clients and Female Sex Workers in Mining Regions of Gejiu City, China

An article in Sexually Transmitted Diseases, June 2008, Vol. 35, No. 6, p.558–565.

This study aims to estimate HIV/STI prevalence and to identify HIV risk factors among FSWs and miner clients. It found among sex workers prevalences for HIV of 8.3%, Herpes simplex virus-2 70.8%, Syphilis 12.5%, Neisseria gonorrhoeae 36.8%, Chlamydia Trachomatis 46.3%, Trichomonas vaginalis 22.1%. 90.6% were infected with any STI. Illegal drug use was associated with HIV and 45.8% reported no condom use with the last client. In miner clients, HIV prevalence was 1.8%.

Condom Use Among Female Sex Workers in China: Role of Gatekeepers

Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the potential role of gatekeepers of establishments in promoting condom use among female sex workers (FSWs) in China.

The goals of this study were to explore FSWs’ perceptions of gatekeeper attitudes and support for condom use, and to assess their association with FSWs’ practice, communication, intention, proper use, knowledge of correct use, and perceptions related to condom use.

Study: The authors conducted a cross-sectional study among 454 establishment-based FSWs in one Chinese county. 

Environmental Support and HIV Prevention Behaviors Among Female Sex Workers in China

To examine the influence of environmental support on HIV prevention behaviors (i.e., condom use behaviors, communication and intention, and HIV/STD testing) among female sex workers (FSWs)
in China.

A Profile of HIV Risk Factors in the Context of Sex Work Environments among Migrant Female Sex Workers in Beijing, China

This study demonstrates how multiple risk factors are situated and vary by types of sex work environments in a sample of 348 migrant FSWs in Beijing. Participants reported high rates of clients' refusal to use condoms (76%), unsafe sex with both clients (32%), non-paid regular partners (e.g., boyfriend or husband) (76%), and a STI symptom (79%) last year.  

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